Reproduction without sex
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Birds do it, and bees do it. Indeed, researchers estimate that over But why is sexual reproduction so commonplace? People typically employ several arguments in their efforts to explain the prevalence of sexual reproduction.
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In animals , parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell. In plants parthenogenesis is a component process of apomixis. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plants, some invertebrate animal species including nematodes , water fleas , some scorpions , aphids , some mites, some bees , some Phasmida and parasitic wasps and a few vertebrates such as some fish ,  amphibians , reptiles   and very rarely birds . This type of reproduction has been induced artificially in a few species including fish and amphibians. Normal egg cells form after meiosis and are haploid , with half as many chromosomes as their mother's body cells. Haploid individuals, however, are usually non-viable, and parthenogenetic offspring usually have the diploid chromosome number. Depending on the mechanism involved in restoring the diploid number of chromosomes, parthenogenetic offspring may have anywhere between all and half of the mother's alleles.
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For more than 30 years, in vitro fertilization has helped numerous couples to have children. Despite this success, some still object to the use of artificial reproductive technologies on moral and ethical grounds. The development of the technique of in vitro fertilization IVF helped to make it possible for a couple to reproduce, to have a child, without normal sexual intercourse. Indeed this is the main point of the procedure: for there are many couples, about one in seven, who encounter difficulties in having children through normal sexual intercourse.
Parthenogenesis is a type of asexual reproduction in which a female gamete or egg cell develops into an individual without fertilization. The term comes from the Greek words parthenos meaning virgin and genesis meaning creation. Animals, including most kinds of wasps, bees, and ants, that have no sex chromosomes reproduce by this process. Some reptiles and fish are also capable of reproducing in this manner.